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Emotional Support vs. Instructional Support:
  • In New York, instructors are often assessed based not only on how much their students learn but on how they form relationships in class. 
  • Emotional support refers to teaching behaviors that help build relationships among students and an excitement about learning. 
  • Instructional support, meanwhile, refers to practices that are designed to improve the way students think. 
  • Current teacher evaluation rubrics tend to place more importance on instructional support. 
Student Growth Percentiles:
  • The percentile based on two or more consecutive years of standardized test scores.
  • Assesses the change in a student’s performance compared to other students in the state who scored similarly in previous years.
Norm-Referenced Tests:
  • Used to describe evaluative methods that compare one student’s performance, most often on tests, to that of a larger population. 
  • This is in contrast to measures that either compare a student to his past performance or simply state whether he/she did well or not.
Performance-based Compensation:
  • Compensation, usually in the form of increased salary, awarded to teachers based on how well their students perform (which is often controversially based on test scores).
  • Some experts say such compensation encourages instructors to perform better, while others say that it is an unfair practice that discourages collaboration.

Evaluation Tool:
Common evaluation tools include a review of the teacher’s lesson plan, classroom observations, self-assessments, portfolio assessments, reviews of students’ works and student/parent surveys.
Individual Model Added:
  • This is used for D.C. Public Schools only, English and math teachers grades  4-10.
  • If a teacher has a high IVA score, their students’ achievement exceeded their expected achievement. 

Effective Teacher:

Teachers whose students meet the standards of achievement determined by the district and who receive positive evaluations.

According to National Board for Professional Teaching Standards, highly effective teachers:

  • are committed to students and their learning,
  • know the subjects they teach and how to teach those subjects to students,
  • monitor individual and classroom learning, 
  • think systematically about their practice and learn from experience,
  • are members of learning communities.
Positive to Corrective Ration:
  • Test scores account for 40 percent of charter school Achievement First’s teacher evaluations if the teacher teaches a subject tested by the state. 
  • To score a 4 or 5, a teacher must utter three times as many positive comments as corrective comments per unit.
  • Observations and parent and student feedback also factor into the evaluations.
Race to the Top:
  • A massive, $4.35 billion contest led by the U.S. Department of Education in 2009 that awarded states federal funding for taking steps to improve their education system. 
  • Allocation of funding was based on the current performance of schools as well as methods to improve them in the future.
  • One of the main requirements of the contest is that states develop new ways to evaluate their teachers — the goal of which is to develop a comprehensive standard that could be applied across the country.
Binary vs. Rating:
  • Binary evaluation systems ask observers to rate a teacher’s performance on a two-response scale, usually either “satisfactory” or “unsatisfactory” 
  • Rating systems ask evaluators to grade teachers on a graduated scale.
Probationary vs. Permanent Status:
  • Teachers who have attained permanent status are evaluated less frequently than those who are probationary. 
  • According to the National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality:
probationary teachers are typically evaluated twice a year, while teachers with permanent status are evaluated once every three to five years.
Value Added:
  • A model that uses students’ standardized test scores year-to-year to assess teacher effectiveness;
  • A student’s performance on math and English standardized tests is predicted based on his/her scores from the previous year;
  • The “value” that the teacher adds or subtracts represents the difference between a student’s projected and actual scores for that year. 
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